Landlocked Austria is bordered by Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, The Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Hungary, Slovenia and Italy. Mountainous with nearly half of the country covered in forests, Austria's nine Federal Provinces reflect a diversity of landscapes the Eastern Alps, Alpine and Carpathian Foothills, the Pannonian Lowlands, the Vienna Basin and the Bohemian Massif. The vegetation changes according to the climate: the lower regions are densely wooded with fir predominating and giving way to larch and stone-pine beyond 4000 feet; the Alpine foothills consist predominantly of arable land and grassland. The Pannonian region is characterised by scrub and heathland. The River Danube, flows approximately, 220 miles (360 km) through Austria on its way to the Black Sea.

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